Using Emulsification Equipment, Combine Oil and Water to Produce an Emulsion, and Emulsifiers for A Stable Mixture
An emulsion is a mixture of fluids that usually don’t mix, like oil and water. It is possible by breaking up one of the fluids into tiny droplets. Oil in water or aqueous phase (o/w) or water in oil (w/o) are two common emulsions. Other complex systems, such as oil in water in oil (o/w/o), may also exist.
Mayonnaise, salad dressings, and sauces are emulsions. Most emulsions need emulsifiers to stop small droplets from sticking together and getting bigger. When the interfacial area gets smaller, the thermodynamic energy of the system goes down. Emulsifiers prevent droplets from merging.
- Hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) tells us which way emulsifiers tend to lean. Less than 6 prefer emulsions of water in oil, while 8 prefer emulsions of oil in water. 7–9 are wetting agent values.
- Food emulsifiers and detergents share a molecule with water-loving and oil-loving parts. Ionic parts are often found in hydrophilic portions. Most of the time, a fatty acid is at the end that attracts oil and is lipophilic. There are both artificial and natural emulsifiers. Soy oil has a phospholipid molecule called lecithin. While egg yolk has lecithin and cholesterol, which improve emulsions of oil in water and water in oil. Mayonnaise and other sauces usually use egg yolk as an emulsifier, but because it serves two purposes, it can be hard to make.
- Food emulsifiers can also be proteins, gums, esters of fatty acids, and poly hydroxyl substrates like lactic acid, sucrose, and polysorbates. Transesterification and molecular distillation make food emulsifiers. Different kinds of fatty acids have other qualities.
- Mayonnaise is made at room temperature using vegetable oil. Other sauces may require little heating since the oil phase is often solid butter. Note that heating destroys egg yolk.
- Foods use emulsifiers in many different ways. Stearoyl lactylates and mono- and di-glycerides stop starch from breaking down into sugar, preventing baked goods from becoming stale. Emulsifiers make chocolate less thick, so there will be less cocoa to use. This saves money and calories. Emulsifiers make it easier for cakes to come out of pans.
- Sucrose esters as fat replacers in frying treats. Fat replacements are non-digestible and can affect the digestive system when used this way.
The stability of an emulsion depends on several factors. The amount of emulsifiers, the difference in density between the two phases, and the size of the droplets (usually between 1 and 10 m is best). Because the components set viscosity and density, the only thing changeable during processing is the size of the droplets.
The emulsification process is the breaking up of oil droplets that aren’t connected in the main liquid phase. Emulsions are suspensions of two liquid streams that would typically separate when mixed.
One must first be broken down into millions of tiny droplets to combine two immiscible chemicals. This is possible using the emulsification equipment. These droplets may be suspended or in other materials using an industrial mixer. The dispersed phase consists of the droplets, whereas the continuous phase consists of the other liquid.
Oil-in-water (O/W) and water-in-oil (W/O) are both types of emulsions. To make oil-in-water emulsions, the oil must be the phase that is spread out, and the water must be the phase that stays the same. The phases are the other way around for emulsions of water in oil. But these things won’t stay mixed for long without emulsifiers. It’s best to use emulsifying equipment like shear mixers and high-speed agitators to keep substances from separating.
The emulsification equipment includes:
- Low-speed stirring machine
- High-speed shear stirring machine
- High-pressure homogenizer
- Ultrasonic emulsifying machine
- Static mixing machine, etc.
Emulsification equipment reduces the size of the droplets or particles of the secondary oily phase so that non-soluble liquids can stay in a mixture of liquids with the same consistency. High-shear mixers or propellers may do this. Emulsifying machines reduce the size of droplets to less than 1 micron and make fine emulsions that last a long time. For these emulsification processes to work, you need high pressure over mechanical shear, but moderate flow rates can be used to scale up.
Emulsions are dynamic liquid forms that are prone to separation. Each piece of equipment mixes and shears fluids to make the droplets of a discontinuous phase smaller and stop them from separating. The point of emulsifying liquids is to keep an oil phase or other fluid that doesn’t mix with water in suspension by making the droplets small enough that they don’t separate. Surfactants help the final mixture stay together for a long time, but emulsifying equipment is a must-have.
Our emulsifying equipment can reduce the size of droplets by a lot, down to less than 1 micron, and they don’t have any moving parts. Having shear parts that don’t rotate makes it easier to repeat and scale up. Our emulsifying equipment is well-known for producing excellent emulsions in various industries, where a product’s quality and potential to last a long time can be crucial.
Cosmetic, Food, Cosmetic, and Pharmaceutical Emulsions
Emulsions are present in many of our favorite foods and sauces, including mayonnaise and salad dressings. Shampoos, creams, conditioners, and lotions are all emulsions used in the cosmetics industry. Emulsions also produce vitamins, supplements, and other bioactive chemicals in the medical field.
Oil-in-water emulsions are better acceptable for internal use products. This is why most food sauces and dietary supplements are oil-in-water emulsions. On the other hand, creams and lotions are for external use and perform best with water-in-oil emulsions.
What Are The Different Emulsion Regulations?
Food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical emulsions must follow WHO’s Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). These rules are suggested but are not enforced.
In the United States, the FDA sets rules for pharmaceutical emulsions. With the help of regional regulatory bodies in EU member states, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) puts EudraLex into place all over Europe. EudraLex is where you can find all the laws and drug rules in the European Union. Most restrictions for making drugs in the ASEAN area align with the PIC/S principles, but each country handles marketing approvals independently.
Note: packaging regulations in several nations mandate that labels on items identify whether they are for internal or external usage. For thick emulsions, you should also use wide-mouthed bottles and explicitly specify on the label that the product has to be vigorously shaken before use. Furthermore, avoid cooling emulsions, as doing so might lead to their demulsification.